Measuring Innovation

How to measure innovation is a complex issue.  This section provides some resources on the subject from OECD. 

The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) is a group of 30 member countries that share a common commitment to democratic government and the market economy. With active relationships with some 70 other countries, it has a global reach. Best known for its publications and statistics, its work covers economic and social issues from macroeconomics, to trade, education, development and science and innovation. By deciphering emerging issues and identifying policies that work, it helps policy-makers adopt strategic orientations. It is well known for its individual country surveys and reviews.

The OECD has developed and maintains numerous publications and guidelines for comparative examination and measurement of innovation. These documents provide a excellent overview of innovation process and measurements issue, and are listed in this section for reference.  (See OECD.)

Using Patent Data

OECD Manual on Using Patent Data

Analysts and policy makers have made increasing use of patent indicators to analyze the rate and direction of technological activity. The Patents Manual provides information on how patent data can be used as indicators, and also shows how these can be linked to other statistics on science, technology and economic activity (R&D, scientific publications, trade, production, etc.) Using patent data at

Measuring Productivity

OCED Manual on Measuring Productivity

Measures of productivity growth constitute core indicators for the analysis of economic growth. However, there are many different approaches to productivity measurement and their calculation and interpretation requires careful consideration, in particular when undertaking international comparisons. The Measuring Productivity OECD Manual is the first comprehensive guide to the various productivity measures aimed at statisticians, researchers and analysts involved in constructing industry&level productivity indicators.

This manual presents the theoretical foundations to productivity measurement, and discusses implementation and measurement issues. The text is accompanied by empirical examples from OECD countries and by numerical examples to enhance its readability. The Manual also offers a brief discussion of the interpretation and use of productivity measures. Measuring Productivity at

Canberra Manual

Canberra Manual - Manual on the Measurement of Human Resources Devoted to Science and Technology

The Manual on the Measurement of Human Resources devoted to S&T (the "Canberra Manual") was issued in 1995. It was prepared in close co-operation between the OECD and the DGXII/Eurostat of the European Commission, other OECD Directorates, UNESCO and the International Labour Office (ILO), with the support of national experts. Drawing on best international and national practice and classifications, the "Canberra Manual" provides definitions of human resources devoted to science and technology in terms of qualification (levels and fields of study) and occupation and discusses a number of variables of policy interest. Canberra Manual at

Frascati Manual

Frascati Manual 2002: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development

The Frascati Manual has become the internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics in innovation measurement and is an indispensable tool for statistical offices around the world. This updated sixth edition includes improved guidelines that address changes in OECD economies, including the measurement of R&D in the service sector, globalisation of R&D and human resources in R&D.  Frascati Manual at

Oslo Manual

Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition

The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition, published in October 2005, has been updated to take into account the progress made in understanding the innovation process and its economic impact, and the experience gained from recent rounds of innovation surveys in OECD member and non-member countries. For the first time, the Manual investigates the field of non-technological innovation and the linkages between different innovation types. It also includes an annex on the implementation of innovation surveys in developing countries. Oslo Manual at

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